This is a summary of "APE-MEN FACT OR FALLACY?"(3rd Reprint) by the writer of this paper. Enormous efforts have been made to discover fossils that could be claimed to be the "missing links" between Man and the apes. The results, however, are a small collection of unconvincing fossil bones.
(A) Artists' impressions. With each new discovery, invariably an artist's impression is given showing "what our ancestors looked like". In each case, however, drawings by various artists based on the same skull are completely different, proving that these pictures are figments of the imagination (Figs. 1,2,3). [To be inserted later]
(B) Java 'man' consists of only a (gibbon's) skull cap and a human leg bone. Yet on these a complete face and body have been reconstructed.
(C) Hesperopithecus (Nebraska man). One tooth was found in America and was claimed to be a new ape-man. A complete detailed picture was published in the London Illustrated News of the ape-man and his wife. The tooth was later found to be that of an extinct pig! Little publicity was given to this fact.
Fossils have been found in older layers than those of the so-called ape-men, but these are classed as "forgeries" or "intrusive burials".
They were not Man's ancestor as Homo sapiens has been found in earlier strata. He was a degenerate variety of Homo Sapiens having a larger brain and suffering from rickets, osteoarthritis and syphilis. He vanished from Europe, being replaced by modern Homo sapiens from the Middle East.
Now known to be a fraud, Dawson the amateur is usually considered to be the hoaxer. Teilhard de Chardin, however, who helped with the digging is by far the most likely culprit:
(A) A (radioactive) tooth was found, which certainly came from Ichkeul in N. Tunisia. Teilhard had visited this site.
(B) An elephant's bone was found which probably came either from the Dordogne in France or from Egypt. Teilhard was born near the Dordogne and was a teacher in Cairo.
(C) Chemical staining of the fake jaw was an involved technical affair. Teilhard lectured in Chemistry and Physics at Cairo University. Teilhard was a renowned authority in anthropology and palaeontology and could fool other experts.
(D) He found a fake flint and tooth in the first few days of digging, and later found the important canine tooth in spread gravel that had already been searched.
(E) He met Dawson in 1909, three years before the fake stained jaw was discovered. He was studying at the Jesuit College at Hastings where he was ordained in 1911 and had ample time to prepare any fakes.
In a letter to The Times (November 25th 1978), Dr. Halstead (who once worked in the Natural History Museum) claimed that "according to Hinton (a former Keeper of Zoology) the Piltdown man hoax was planned and executed within the Museum" and that others including Teilhard were involved. This is confirmed by the secrecy surrounding the fossil, experts only being allowed closely to examine plaster replicas. This indicates that the hoax was known at a very high level.
On May 22 1996 it was announced that a canvas trunk had been found in the British Natural History Museum containing bones stained and carved in the same way as those of the Piltdown fossils. The trunk had the initials of M.A.C. Hinton who had worked at the Museum at the time of the Piltdown discoveries and pinpoints him as the hoaxer inside the Museum.
This is confirmation of the accusation levelled by Halstead against Hinton in his letter to the Times dated 25 November 1978 quoted above.
There are three points to notice about the publicity that is given to this new discovery;
The bag was found in a tower of the Museum in the early 1970's with the items inside it. It has since been "lost".
(a) If it was found in the early 1970's, why has it taken over 20 years for its contents to be publicised?
(b) The bag itself was discarded "as being of no real interest"!
Who do they think they are fooling. This is just another part of the cover-up that surrounds the whole of this incident.
It is interesting that Hinton is immediately described as a "eccentric" or having a "passion for pranks", making the whole subject just a "bit of a joke". He is said to have done it to get his own back on the "stuffy" Prof. Smith-Woodward. This explanation is nonsense, for who would risk his whole career on such an adventure? This is exactly the same excuse provided when Teilhard was suspected of involment inthe hoax. This and much else has been covered in an updating of the Piltdown hoax in appendix 2 of my "Science vs. Evolution".
It is quite certain that this was far from being a "practical joke" that "misfired" as we will see. It was a deliberate attempt to forge a link between man and ape to bolster the theory of evolution in this particular and vital subject.
When he was 16 Hinton published a paper showing how fossils in a river could be stained brown by the oxides. The contents of the trunk also showed that he had been carrying out staining experiments. He joined the Museum as an unpaid "voluntary worker", but rose to become the Keeper of Zoology - an important post. Whilst reading this latest account, it struck me that he may have been rapidly promoted as a reward for his supplying and correctly staining the necessary 'items' for the Piltdown pit.
But this, of course, is pure speculation and should have no part in a serious scientific investigation.
What has not been considered in this latest revelation is how Hinton got the fraudulent items into the Piltdown pit for Dawson and Woodward-Smith to then "discover".
We have shown that Teilhard was very directly involved in this part of the operation. He picked up a Stegodon (an early Elephant type) tooth from the North African site of Ichkeul and dropped this into the Piltdown pit. He did not realise that its high level of radioactivity would enable it to be pinpointed to this particular site thereby completely incriminating him.
We have examined his devious answering to questions when he revisited this country in 1954 in my "Science" p 181. Yet even with these latest revelations, Teilhard's involvement will be hardly mentioned. Hinton AND OTHERS at a very high level, planned the whole "hoax", the victims being the members of the public who would be brainwashed into thinking that they had descended from apes. Hinton's name can now be blackened, but Teilhard, the darling of the Establishment and the New Age Movement, must be protected at all costs. If his involvement were to be publicly accepted, this would badly damage his "Omega point" philosophy which is used by these two groups as the pseudo-religious link between science and life.
We await with interest the time when Teilhard's key involvement in this serious hoaxing of the nations is eventually acknowledged. With the support that his philosophy still enjoys from those in positions of power it may be many years yet.
Teilhard de Chardin worked on this site also, with Dr. Davidson Black (who had also visited the site at Piltdown).
(A) Almost every skull was broken into small pieces.
(B) Only (incomplete) skulls were found, virtually no limb bones (Fig.4). [To be insterted later] To explain this, the experts said that Pekin man was a head hunting cannibal! It is obvious that they are only the skulls of large monkeys broken open by real men to obtain the brains for cooking.
Professor Breuil visited the site and saw:
(a) stone and bone tools of an advanced type in large quantities,
(b) a 23 ft.(7m) high heap of ash. This was referred to as "traces of fire" by the investigators! The whole subject was dismissed in one short paragraph in the official report of the site investigations.
In 1934, skulls of modern men were found alongside the site. Dr. Black died of a heart attack whilst examining them. His successor, Dr. Weidenreich, did not publish anything about them for five years. All the fossils were "lost" at the time of Pearl Harbour and cannot now be examined to check the reconstructions.
In December 1923 world wide publicity was given to the discovery of the skeletons of ten men on the Pekin Man site. Dr. Davidson Black promised to make an important announcement about the new discoveries. Nothing more was ever mentioned about them in any scientific periodical. They simply vanished ! What could have happened ? It seems likely that, after the blaze of publicity, they were later were found to be human beings and not ape-men missing links. An admission of their existence on the site would have destroyed any credibility in the "ape-men" they claimed thay had discovered on the site and were therefore quietly ignored.
In 1890 Dubois found a skull cap (of a giant gibbon) and a human leg bone 45 ft. away (Fig. 5). [To be inserted later] He put them together and said he had found a "walking ape" (Pithecanthropus erectus). For thirty years he kept secret two skulls and other fossils of modern men he had found at the same time. The Selenka Trinil Expedition could find no further trace of Dubois' ape-man. Von Koenigswald found only a few broken skull pieces and parts of jaws which he claimed confirmed Java man's existence (Fig. 6). [To be inserted later]. Four years before he died Dubois admitted that he had only found the skull of a large gibbon, but this was dismissed by experts as Java man had become too well established!
In a symposium, edited by Sir Julian Huxley, Sir Solly Zuckerman completely rejects these fossil apes. Similarly Oxnard claims that they are not ancestral to man.
(A) Ramapithecus The only fossils of this ape are some thirty jaws and teeth!
(B) Richard Leakey's "1470 Man" [To be inserted later]. Almost certainly this is a small human skull as it has many human features, and human leg bones have been found in the same strata. First radiometric dating of strata gave the impossibly high figure of 220 million years. This was rejected and a second sample gave 2.6 million years. It was this latter date which received great publicity. The human characteristics of 1470 man are so embarrassing that it has been reclassified as Homo habilis and is now quietly ignored.
(C) Johanson's "Lucy" is about 40% of the skeleton of an ape. There is virtually no evidence that this fossil was evolving into Homo sapiens. The remainder of Johanson's discoveries is a meagre collection of ape bones.
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